Nuclear Power Plants - Russia


The Russian Republic has reactors of the VVER (pressurized water), RBMK and LWGR (grahite moderated light water cooled), and BN (Liquid metal cooled) reactor designs. The VVER is similar to the western PWR design. The RBMK and LWGR reactor design are similar to former US government plutonium production reactors. The BN design is similar to that of the Argonne EBR-II reactor in Idaho and the uncompleted Clinch River breeder reactor.

Rosenergoatom, founded in 1992,  is the Russian agency responsible for generation of electric and thermal power at 9 nuclear power plant sites. These 9 sites consist of 31 reactors with a total electrical power output of 23.2 GWe. 

The Rosenergatom website provides an imagemap of Russia with links to information about each plant showing location, detailed information. This information is also linked further down on this page. The general information section of the Rosenergatom site originally had 2 tables - (1) table lists each plant, rating, date connected to grid, and reactor type, and (2) table listing the operating temperature and pressure, electrical and thermal power, number of fuel assemblies for each reactor type. As of August 21, this page was being changed.

Kalinin Nuclear Power Station

The Kalinin Nuclear Power Station has three 1000 MWe VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor units. The facility is located in the northern part of the Kalinin district, near the town of Udomlia. Kalinin district is located between Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Each unit has 4 reactor coolant loops with horizontal steam generators. The secondary system has 7 regenerative stages of condensate and feedwater heaters. From the condenser, the condensate is supplied to condensate pumps which increase pressure to supply a condensate-demineralizer system. Condensate booster pumps then feed the water through 4 stages of low pressure regenerative heaters, then to a deaerator. The deaerator is a large intermediate storage tank that uses some process steam to remove oxygen that may be present in the water. The deaerator supplies feedwater pumps that increase pressure to direct the water through 3 stages of high pressure feedwater heaters then to the horizontal steam generators.

VVER-1000 operating reactors are also located at:

Photo courtesy Kalinin NPS

Smolensk Nuclear Power Station

Smolensk 1-3 units are located about 250 miles southwest of Moscow. The Smolensk RBMK units each generate ~ 1000 MWe. 1 and 2 are operating.

Each unit has 2 turbine-generators. The following pages illustrate reactor and turbine areas of the Smolensk power plant.

RBMK reactors are also located at:

Photo by J.A. Gonyeau

VVER-440 reactors (with model) are located at

LWGR (Light water cooled-graphite moderated) reactors are located at:

BN-600 (metal cooled breeder reactor - located at: Beloyarsk).

In addition, the US Department of Energy provides some information on Russian reactors:


Copyright 1996-2006.  The Virtual Nuclear Tourist. All rights reserved. Revised: August 21, 2006.