Europe and Scandinavia


Austria
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides nuclear safeguards oversight for the UN for countries (member states) participating in the nuclear non-proliferation agreement. They also provide assistance to those member states who need training and assistance in improving or maintaining a high level of nuclear safety. The IAEA has an excellent site covering many topics of interest.
 
Belgium
Electrobel operates reactors at Doel and Tihange. The Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN) homepage describes their research activities and provide on-line research reports.
 
Czech Republic
CEZ operates the 4 VVER reactors at Dukovany and is starting up the 2 VVER-1000 reactors at Temelin. The SUJB regulates nuclear power and radiation safety. The SURAO is responsible for control and storage of radioactive waste. The UJV performs nuclear research similar to the US national laboratories.
 
Finland
Fortum operates Finland's VVER reactors at Loviisa. TVO operates two 710 MWe BWRs at Olkiluoto. More information can be found on the Finland page. STUK, Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, is responsible for regulation of the use of nuclear energy of the radiation practices in Finland. STUK sets safety requirements and verifies compliance with them.
 
France
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) promotes co-operation among the governments of its participating countries (European Member countries of OECD as well as Australia, Canada, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mexico and the United States) in furthering the development of nuclear power as a safe, environmentally acceptable and economic energy source. NEA, based in France has an extensive set of links to countries with nuclear power plants. Their site covers nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection, nuclear law, nuclear developments and science. Extensive database, publications, and library resources are also available. You must register to be able to use the site.
Electricite de France, the French nuclear utility, has maintained a high level of nuclear safety at the 50+ nuclear units that it operates in France. Nuclear power provides over 70% of the electricity capacity needs of France.
Germany
The Informationskreis Kernergie site provides extensive information about nuclear power and the German plants. Included in the knowledge section are topics as - History, The Nuclear Power Plant (including as virtual tour of Isar-2), Radiation Exposure, The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Waste Management, Dismantling: Downloads as annual reports and simulation software programs are also available.

Utilities include:

In June 2000, the German government and the country's four largest electricity producers announced a compromise agreement on the eventual closing of the 19 nuclear power plants currently operating in Germany. Obrigheim was the second to shutdown on May 11, 2005. Biblis A is next, scheduled for February 2007. Global warming agreements (Kyoto) and the recent Russian-Ukrainian dispute over natural gas supplies have called into question whether plants should continue to be shutdown (Die Welt)

The Federal Environment Ministry is charged with regulating traditional environmental areas and safety of nuclear installations, radiation protection, and disposal of nuclear waste .

Gesellschaft für Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) provide radioactive waste management services. Their site (in German) can be translated using the AltaVista service.

The Thomas Dashuber site has good pictures of the various sites.

Greece - Italy
 
Netherlands
The Netherlands Energy Research Foundation is the leading institute for energy research in the Netherlands. ECN carries out basic and applied research in the fields of nuclear energy, fossil fuels, renewable energy sources, policy studies, environmental aspects of energy supply and the development and application of new materials. The Dutch Young Generation, part of the Netherlands Nuclear Society (NNS) and Royal Institute of Engineers (KIvI), department of nuclear technology (KIvI-Ke) has a mission of encouraging development of young professionals in the nuclear technology.  The Borselle plant staff independently maintain the Stichting Borssele 2004+ site.
 
Norway
 
Slovak Republic
The UJD is the Slovakian Nuclear Regulatory Authority. Established in 1998, UJD oversees the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of the nuclear energy facilities. Slovenské Elektrárne operates both sites with webpages describing the Bohunice and Mochovce  plants. Map, history, and method of power generation, information are provided, together with a Macromedia presentation of photos of each site. Vyskumny Ustav Jadrovych Elektrarni (VUJE) Trnava a.s. supports the nuclear facilities through its research activities.
 
Slovenia
Institut Jozef Stefan , located in Ljubljana, Slovenia, is a highly regarded research facility and organization that provides nuclear safety support and training for the Slovenian government and nuclear industry. The Institute also has served as the Internet link between Slovenia and the world.  Nuklearna Elektrarna Krško (NEK) operates the Krsko reactor.

 

Spain
Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) maintains a very informative site, in Spanish, providing information about all aspects of the fuel cycle, and licensees, that they regulate. A separate section leads to apges for each power plant.   In Spain, most of the nuclear power plants are owned by several utilities but operated by a single operating organization that reports to the owners. Each owner utility is issued a license by CSN. Spanish utilities that own nuclear plants are:

UNESA is an organization that has many functions similar to the Nuclear Energy Institute and Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. In Spain a single organization - Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A. (ENUSA) - is responsible for the core design and the purchase of uranium, manufacture of the fuel, and transportation of the fuel to the nuclear plants. A single organization - Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) - is responsible for the transportation and disposal of low and high level radioactive waste and for the decommissioning of each power plant after shutdown.

Sweden
The state utility is Vattenfall AB. Private utilities include Sydkraft AB and Ringhals AB. Syndkaft is a subsidiary of the German company E.ON Energie. OKG owns three nuclear reactor units which, together, account for more than 10 per cent of the total electricity generated in Sweden. OKG is also responsible for operating CLAB, the interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel from all the nuclear power plants in Sweden. SKI is the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate.
 
Switzerland
The Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) is the Swiss regulatory agency. They maintain French, English, and German websites. Annual reports through 2003 can be downloaded. 
NOK - Beznau operates two Westinghouse 2 Loop PWR reactors
Kernkraftwerk Gösgen operates a single Kraftwerk Union PWR reactor
Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt operates a single GE BWR reactor
Kernkraftwerk Mühleberg operates a single GE BWR reactor

 

United Kingdom
British Energy and British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) operate the reactors in the UK,.The BBC is a good source of information on the UK nuclear industry. The Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, and Department of Trade and Industry are among the agencies regulating the UK facilities.

Copyright © 1996-2006.  The Virtual Nuclear Tourist. All rights reserved. Revised: January 22, 2006.