- The International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA) provides nuclear safeguards oversight for the UN for countries (member
states) participating in the nuclear non-proliferation agreement. They also
provide assistance to those member states who need training and assistance in
improving or maintaining a high level of nuclear safety. The IAEA has an
excellent site covering many topics of interest.
- Czech Republic
- CEZ operates the 4 VVER
reactors at Dukovany and is starting up the 2 VVER-1000 reactors at Temelin.
The SUJB regulates nuclear power and
radiation safety. The SURAO is responsible
for control and storage of radioactive waste. The UJV performs nuclear research similar to the US
- Fortum operates Finland's
VVER reactors at Loviisa. TVO
operates two 710 MWe BWRs at Olkiluoto.
More information can be found on the Finland page.
STUK, Finnish Centre for
Radiation and Nuclear Safety, is responsible for regulation of the use of
nuclear energy of the radiation practices in Finland.
STUK sets safety requirements and
verifies compliance with them.
- The OECD Nuclear
Energy Agency (NEA) promotes co-operation among the governments of its
participating countries (European Member countries of OECD as well as
Australia, Canada, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mexico and the United States)
in furthering the development of nuclear power as a safe, environmentally
acceptable and economic energy source. NEA, based in France has an extensive
set of links to countries with
nuclear power plants. Their site covers nuclear safety, radioactive waste
management, radiation protection, nuclear law, nuclear developments and
science. Extensive database, publications, and library resources are also
available. You must register to be able to use
- Electricite de France, the French
nuclear utility, has maintained a high level of nuclear safety at the 50+
nuclear units that it operates in France. Nuclear power provides over 70% of
the electricity capacity needs of France.
In June 2000, the
German government and the country's four largest electricity producers
announced a compromise agreement on the eventual closing of the 19 nuclear
power plants currently operating in Germany.
Obrigheim was the second to shutdown on May
11, 2005. Biblis A
is next, scheduled for February 2007. Global warming agreements (Kyoto) and
the recent Russian-Ukrainian dispute over natural gas supplies have called
into question whether plants should continue to be shutdown (Die
Environment Ministry is charged with regulating traditional environmental
areas and safety of nuclear installations, radiation protection, and disposal
of nuclear waste .
Gesellschaft für Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) provide
radioactive waste management services. Their site (in German) can be
translated using the
site has good pictures of the various sites.
- Greece - Italy
- The Netherlands Energy Research Foundation
is the leading institute for energy research in the Netherlands. ECN carries
out basic and applied research in the fields of nuclear energy, fossil fuels,
renewable energy sources, policy studies, environmental aspects of energy
supply and the development and application of new materials. The
Dutch Young Generation, part of
the Netherlands Nuclear Society (NNS) and Royal Institute of Engineers (KIvI),
department of nuclear technology (KIvI-Ke) has a mission of encouraging
development of young professionals in the nuclear technology. The
Borselle plant staff independently maintain the
Stichting Borssele 2004+
- Slovak Republic
- Institut Jozef
Stefan , located in Ljubljana, Slovenia,
is a highly regarded research facility and organization that provides nuclear
safety support and training for the Slovenian government and nuclear industry.
The Institute also has served as the Internet link between Slovenia and the
Nuklearna Elektrarna Krko (NEK)
operates the Krsko reactor.
- Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) maintains a very
informative site, in Spanish, providing information about all aspects of the fuel cycle,
and licensees, that they regulate. A separate section leads to apges for each power plant.
In Spain, most of the nuclear power plants are owned by several utilities but
operated by a single operating organization that reports to the owners. Each owner utility
is issued a license by CSN. Spanish utilities that own nuclear plants are:
- Compania Sevillana de Electricidad (Almaraz)
- Empresa Nacional de Electricidad (Asco 1 & 2,
- Fuerzas Electricas de Cataluna SA (Asco 1 & 2)
- Hidroelectrica del Cantabrico (Trillo)
- Iberdrola (Almaraz, Asco 2, Cofrentes,
Garona, Trillo, Vandellos)
- Union Electrica Fenosa (Almaraz, Jose Cabrera, Trillo)
UNESA is an organization that has many functions
similar to the Nuclear Energy Institute and Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. In
Spain a single organization - Empresa
Nacional del Uranio, S.A. (ENUSA) - is responsible for the core design and the
purchase of uranium, manufacture of the fuel, and transportation of the fuel to the
nuclear plants. A single organization - Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos, S.A.
(ENRESA) - is responsible for the transportation and disposal of low and high level
radioactive waste and for the decommissioning of each power plant after shutdown.
- The state utility is
Vattenfall AB. Private utilities include
Sydkraft AB and
Ringhals AB. Syndkaft is a subsidiary of
the German company E.ON Energie. OKG owns
three nuclear reactor units which, together, account for more than 10 per cent
of the total electricity generated in Sweden. OKG is also responsible for
operating CLAB, the interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel from all
the nuclear power plants in Sweden. SKI is the
Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate.
- The Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK)
is the Swiss regulatory agency. They maintain French, English, and German
websites. Annual reports
can be downloaded.
British Energy and British Nuclear
Fuels (BNFL) operate the reactors in the UK,.The
BBC is a good source of information on the UK nuclear industry. The Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, Scottish
Environment Protection Agency, and
Department of Trade and Industry are among the agencies regulating the UK
Copyright © 1996-2006. The Virtual Nuclear Tourist.
All rights reserved. Revised: January 22, 2006.